Introduction to Protection Relays
What is a Protection Relay?
A protection relay is a smart device that receives inputs, compares them to set points, and provides outputs. Inputs can include current, voltage, resistance, or temperature. Outputs can include visual feedback in the form of indicator lights and/or an alphanumeric display, communications, control warnings, alarms, and turning power off and on. A diagram is shown below.
Protection relays can be either electromechanical or electronic/microprocessor-based. Electromechanical relays consist of mechanical parts that require routine calibration to stay within intended tolerances. Microprocessor-based or electronic relays provide quick, reliable, accurate, and repeatable outputs. Using an electronic or microprocessor-based relay instead of an electromechanical design provides numerous advantages including improved accuracy, additional functions, reduced maintenance, smaller space requirements and lower life-cycle costs.
A relay needs information from the system to make a decision. These inputs can be collected in a variety of ways. In some cases, the wires in the field can be connected directly to the relay. In other applications, additional devices are needed to convert the measured parameters to a format that the relay can process. These additional devices can be current transformers, potential transformers, high-tension couplers, RTDs, or other devices.
Many protection relays have adjustable settings. The user selects settings (pick-up levels) that allow the relay to make a decision. The relay compares the inputs to these settings and responds accordingly.
Once the inputs are connected and the settings are made, the relay compares these values and makes a decision. Depending on the need, different types of relays are available for different functions.